Glossary - Olivottoil

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ACIDITY
Amount of free fatty acids in food or other substance.
In olive oil, measured by free oleic acid content.

ANTIOXIDANTS
Natural or synthetic substances that prevent or delay the process of oxidation (process of combining with unstable form of oxygen) that can be damaging to cells and tissues. Helps protect the body from harmful substances called free radicals (unstable, highly reactive form of oxygen that can attack cell membranes and harm body) Found naturally in the body and in some food..

ATHEROSCLEROSIS
Condition in which fatty deposits form on the inner walls of arteries and interfere with free flow of blood.

CENTRIFUGATION
Process used in manufacturing olive oil to separate olive liquid (including water) from oil. Because oil is lighter than water, separates by gravity (oil rises), assisted by a process of rotating mixture in container.

CHOLESTEROL
A fat-soluble waxy substance (sterol) classified as fat that is the essential constituent of every cell. Made in the body and found in foods of animal origin, not in plants or vegetables. High levels of cholesterol are dangerous for human body Olive oil is naturally cholesterol free.

Two types of cholesterol:
HDL (good cholesterol)
LDH (bad cholesterol)

CHOLESTEROL FREE
A food item containing less than 2 mg. cholesterol for serving for 50 grams of food. Olive oil is cholesterol free.

COLD PRESSING
Extraction process that uses just pressure to obtain the oil from olives, with no use of solvents or heat. Bertolli extra virgin olive oil is a first cold pressing olive oil.

DECANTATION
Process of drawing off liquid without disturbing underlying sediment, precipitate or lower liquid level.

DETERIORATION
Chemically, oils and fats are stable, neutral substances. Two types of deterioration may occur during storage, resulting in color and flavor changes of fats and oils: Oxidation by exposure to air; accelerated by high temperature and strong light, Hydrolysis which causes splitting of neutral fat, resulting in free fatty acids; accelerated by presence of water, high temperatures, and microbiological agents such as mould and yeasts.

FAT
Class of organic compounds known as lipids. Insoluble in water. Most concentrated source of food energy. Provides 9 calories per gram (carbohydrates and protein each provide 4)

FATTY ACIDS
Main constituent of triglicerides, basic chemical units (“building blocks”) of fat. Fatty acids can be as follows : Monounsaturated Fatty Acids: are considered the most healthy among fatty acids because there is evidence that they don’t increase cholesterol in general and decrease LDL (bad cholesterol).Among ordinary fats olive oil has the highest content of monounsaturated fatty acids (average 77%). Polyunsaturated Fatty acids: a certain amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids is needed by the human body, while a huge quantity is dangerous because it leads to cell oxidation. Olive oil has a very balanced composition with the right content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. They also reduce the level of LDL (bad cholesterol). Such fats are found in most seed oils. Satured Fatty acids: they contribute to increasing the level of bad cholesterol in the blood. Such fats found naturally of animal origin, including meat, poultry and dairy products, as well as in some vegetable food like coconut, palm and palm kernel oils.

FREE FATTY ACIDS
Occur when acids in mono-, di- and tri-glycerides are broken down into free acids by chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis.
Is measurable, e.g. free oleic acid in olive oil.

GLUTEN
Olive oil is gluten free.

KOSHER
Prepared for use according to Jewish dietary law. The Kosher designation for food indicates that a certified official of Jewish faith has inspected the production facility and found that the source, processing and handling of the food satisfies Jewish dietary regulations
(U): indicates that the certifying organization is the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America (333 7th Ave., NY, NY 10001)
PARVE (P; ALSO PAREVE): Indicates that a food is made without milk, meat or any of their derivatives All Bertolli olive oils are Kosher (U) and pareve.

LIPIDS
Term used for cellular waxes, fats and fat-like substances characterized by one or more fatty acids In body, fats (or lipids) combine with other substances to form compounds:
Glycolipids (carbohydrate)
Lipoproteins (protein)
Phospholipids (phosphate)
Cholesterol

LIPOPROTEIN
Molecule of protein-coated fat and cholesterol
Since fats (cholesterol and triglycerides) not soluble in water, lipoproteins needed to circulate them throughout body
Lipoproteins of medical and dietary interest classified according to size, composition and density (High, Low or Very Low).

OLEIC ACID
Most widely distributed of all fatty acids
Found in almost every vegetable and animal fat
Rich sources are olive and peanut oils.

OLIVE OIL, EXTRA LIGHT TASTING
Pure, very mild oil with only hint of olive flavour and aroma
Like all pourable oils, Extra Light Olive Oil has 120 calories per tablespoon. This term is a flavor designation.
Commonly used as a substitute for other cooking oils
Used for baking and excellent for sautéing and stir frying

OLIVE OIL -EXTRA VIRGIN
First cold press olive oil, which meets exacting taste and aroma standards and has acidity level of less than 1%. Characterized by a rich and fruity flavor. Used where a full extra virgin oil flavor will be appreciated.

OLIVE OIL, PURE (MARKETED BY BERTOLLI AS "CLASSICO")
Characterized by a full-bodied and mild flavor; used for sautéing, stir frying and pasta sauces.

OLIVE OIL, STAIN REMOVAL
Put cloth on flat surface, preferably on towel
Cover stain with thick layer of cornstarch, salt or baking soda
Allow to sit until dry ingredient begins to cake
Scrape off with table knife and discard dry ingredient, which will have absorbed most of oil
Launder as usual, in hottest water recommended for fabric.

OLIVE POMACE OIL (NOT MARKETED BY BERTOLLI)
Extracted from remaining olive and fruit debris with aid of solvents, refined and then blended with virgin olive oil to add flavor
Usually least expensive olive-derived oil but may not be sold as "olive oil".
Production limited and continues to decline due to advances in olive pressing technology .

ORGANOLEPTIC TEST
Testing, especially of foods, by using sense organs to evaluate flavour, odor, appearance and even "mouth feel".

OXIDATION
In fats and oils, process in which unsaturated fatty acids react with oxygen resulting in rancidity.

RANCIDITY
Off flavor in edible oils and fats, or in manufactured food products, caused by oxidative deterioration.

REFINING
Process of removing impurities: In pure olive oil processing, involves removal of free fatty acids and other components providing aroma and flavour.

SHELF LIFE
Olive oil naturally lasts for a very long time (ca. 15 months if properly stored), keeping its natural properties due to the presence of natural antioxidants in the product.

SMOKE POINT
Temperature at which smoke becomes visible as oil is being heated
Depends on content of free fatty acids and other volatile compounds in oil
High smoke point desirable, especially when using oil for frying
Smoke point of Olive oil is generally higher than other vegetable oils. In general pure olive oil has the highest smoke point.

STABILITY
For fats and oils, refers to resistance to deterioration.

STORAGE
It’s very easy to store olive oil because if you store it closed in a dark place, at room temperature, it has a natural resistance. Remember that storing olive oil in the fridge can cause partial/total solidification although it doesn’t affect the quality

VITAMIN E
One of the fat-soluble vitamins (Others are A, D and K; vitamin C and B-vitamins are water-soluble)
Functions as antioxidant in the body, protecting cell membranes
Natural component of olive oil.

OIL CONSERVATION:
Extra virgin olive oil should be stored at temperatures preferably between 10 and 25° C avoiding both the heating and freezing In case of extra virgin olive oil, the packaging plays the fundamental role of an important protective barrier against light and oxygen and is therefore a means to preserve the qualitative characteristics of the oil.

The choice of material used for packaging should be driven essentially by the following three factors:
• not permeable to oil
• not permeable to gases
• protected from light.

Containers have to be inert to prevent the release of substances that could endanger human health, change the composition of the foodstuffs or a deterioration of the organoleptic characteristics. They should also be easy to handle, light, safe and environmental friendly (Reg. (EC) 1935/04). Although the research in the area indicate the superiority of Tin containers, Italian consumers, in particular as regards the extra virgin olive oil, prefer glass bottles of different form and color

New scenarios for Olive growing in the Salento area Apulia. Meeting 30/10/2012 Lecce

Mr. Franceso Scittulli (Oncologist) President of the Italian league for the fight against cancer (LILT) took the stand during the meeting on the 30/10/2012 in Lecce Apulia. A great sustainer and promoter of extra virgin olive oil, Mr Scitulli started off his speech with the importance of daily usage of extra virgin olive oil especially the quality of the this oil in this area.

The principal arguments were dedicated to the preventive aid that this product gives:

• on the digestive system
• cardiovascular
• breast cancer ( recent research reveals that constant consumption of extra virgin olive oil protects up to 40% on breast cancer )
• Prostrate cancer ( protection up to 34%)
• From studies done extra virgin olive oil reduces the bad cholesterol and increases the good cholesterol levels
• Extra virgin olive oil has been described as “ the artery sweeper”
• For hypertension and has extraordinary effects on the brain
• Doesn’t loose its properties at high temperatures

He went on to say that the first olive cultivations went as far back as 8000 years ago in Syria and Palestine. Only 3000 years ago olive trees were imported to Italy in 1000 a.c.

The extraordinary fact about extra virgin olive oil is in it’s making :

No other oil is made like extra virgin , it is obtained directly from the fruit of the olive tree, coldly pressed with no mechanical or industrial methods involved.
No heating is used
The acid level should be no more than 2.0%
The organoleptic range should be no less than 6.5%

Mr. Scittulli recommends the daily use of extra virgin olive oil for young children from kindergarten school onwards. A sane and genuine product which should be consumed all over the world.


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